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What does industrial organizational psychologist do ?

 Organizational Industrial Psychology

Industrial psychology is a branch of applied psychology, which aims to increase the productive efficiency of workers, by solving the. problems that occur in the industrial field, scientifically, objectively and humanly and ensures the dignity appreciation and respect of workers, which achieves psychological and health comfort which contributes to increasing production in quantity and quality.

What does industrial organizational psychologist do?
Image by Robin Higgins from Pixabay

In the past, most industrialists were mostly interested in improving equipment and tended to increase the amount of production and achieve the greatest profit, and workers did not receive the care, attention and care of industry professionals like the machine. 
If the worker gets sick or tired, unable to work due to some injuries, or has reduced his productivity to another reason, the industry is quicker to replace it so that the machine continues to work without disruption, but in the modern era the attention was focused on the basic element and providing the right atmosphere for him in the working environment so that he can achieve high productivity efficiency.

Industry and its development depend solely on machinery, capital and production methods, relying primarily on the human element, which is the most important element of any industrial project, which is responsible for the operation maintenance, repair and development of the machine and is primarily responsible for production, increase and improvement in quantity and quality.

Therefore, the human personality is the first pillar of industrial production, which is better chosen and placed in the right work for it physically, psychologically and mentally. 

Industrial psychology seeks to create all the material, psychological and social conditions that ensure the production of the largest amount of the finest quality, in the shortest time, with the least effort, and with the greatest professional satisfaction of workers. 

The first chapter of the article includes the introduction of industrial psychology, in particular, its definition objectives and fields, the role of the psychologist in industrial psychology and the emergence of industrial psychology.

 Chapter 2 includes work analysis, the third includes the analysis of the individual and chapter four includes material differences in industry, the fifth chapter guarantees normal working conditions at work

 chapter 6 deals with work accidents and industrial security

 chapter 7 deals with the motives of workers at work.

Chapter 8 deals with professional satisfaction, the concept of professional satisfaction, its determinants associated factors, theories on professional satisfaction gender differences in professional satisfaction professional satisfaction with productivity, professional satisfaction and behavioral trials.

Chapter 9 includes industrial (vocational) training. 

Chapter 10 includes work pressures, while 

chapter 11 deals with the mental health of workers. 

Chapter 12: unemployment and retirement, includes the causes of unemployment and worsening effects of unemployment, unemployment in Kuwait, safety and unemployment, and retirement includes the concept of retirement, retirement between choice and forcedness, factors affecting retirement and psychological problems of retirement, and World Day of the Elderly.

Chapter 13: Consumer Psychology, contains the basic principles of consumer psychology, consumer cycle successful manager psychology, new in consumer behavior, the development of the field of consumer behavior, hidden psychological aspects behind the pricing value, respect for the value of the consumer, the effect of advertising to the consumer. The author hopes that this article will be useful to his students especially students of industrial psychology, and he hopes that this book will also benefit all students of universities and higher institutes, and the author hopes that this article will be useful to industry and business owners especially at the moment when the country is making great strides towards industrialization.

Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology

Definition of industrial and organizational psychology
Objectives of industrial psychology
The role of the psychologist's work
Fields of industrial psychology
Duties of the psychologist in industry

It can be said that industrial and organizational psychology is a branch of applied psychology, which aims to apply theories, methods and programs of psychology in the field of industry in particular and the economic field in general with the aim of reaching the best possible solutions that stand out in these areas, as well as the use of psychological tests and measures for choice, guidance and professional selection as well as seeks to raise the level of productive efficiency of the individual or group by solving the problems facing individuals and groups scientifically Humanly based on the principles and foundations of psychology ( Hucyzynski 2001, Buchanan. )

Definition of industrial and organizational psychology:

Schultz's definition (1990, Schults) of industrial psychology is that it applies the methods, facts and principles of human behavior to individuals at work, as Gion (1965, Guion) defines it as a scientific study between the human being and the world of work. English and English scientists define industrial psychology as the scientific study of industrial problems, through psychology research methods, concepts and principles, and the use of results to increase productive efficiency. 

Fraser (1969, Frezer) defines industrial psychology as a human study in the field of work and production. Drever (1974 Drever) also defines industrial psychology as the branch of applied psychology that is interested in applying psychology research curricula and its results in problems arising in the industrial and economic sphere including the selection, training and working conditions of workers. Industrial and organizational psychology is recognized as a branch of psychology. 

Section 14 of the American Psychological Association is represented by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In 1993, there were about 519.2 members of the section(14), including 1982 men (5.76) and 591 women

 (5.23 per cent). (1975) (1984) (There was an estimated increase in the representation of women (18%) of members entering the field of industrial and organizational psychology, which is the largest proportion of women's representation across all disciplines of psychology (1993),  Directory APA 1986., al et Howard( . ) In Kashrod Building, 1995.

Therefore, the modern and accredited designation of the American Psychological Association for its branch (14) was Psychology Organizational/Industrial, while the British Psychological Society preferred to name other names referring to the field of knowledge, including psychology, psychology, psychology, psychology and psychology(Work of Psychology) and other (Greens, 2005).) A master's degree is necessary for the qualification of an industrial and organizational psychologist (and membership in section 14 (of the American Psychological Association). It is contrary to some areas or fields of industrial and regulatory psychology, especially in industrially developed countries and some countries on the road to growth, such as in Morocco Algeria, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.

Objectives of industrial psychology:

First - Increasing production efficiency:

The intention is to increase productivity efficiency by increasing the human capacity to produce, which is achieved by directing the worker and training him professionally and psychologically.... This leads to the human worker doing his part well, and in harmony with other factors of production and technical, economic administrative and regulatory factors, thereby increasing production and benefiting workers, employers and society.

Second - Increasing the worker's compatibility in his work:

The worker's compatibility in his work is achieved by selecting workers for work that is consistent with their abilities, preparations and personal characteristics, thus helping them to conform in their work with the economy in efforts, securing them for their future and allowing them to progress and promotion, treating them with respect and preserving their human dignity, so that the worker is compatible with his profession and the institution in which he works, which he feels is generally related to them and to be associated with them as a working member and not just a machine or complementary part of a machine in the factory.

Third - Industrial stability:

Industrial stability is achieved by eliminating the sources of complaint and disputes between workers and employers by developing a policy of employment and wages and the system of distribution of profits resulting from increased production, and it is usually possible to classify, identify and analyse jobs to assess the effort needed to perform each of them and to identify stages of learning both from an effective point of view, while continuing to make the necessary adjustments in this analysis and make the necessary improvements in the labour system from another time to achieve the worker's comfort, harmony in his work and a sense of stability and tranquillity on the basis of being a working member. In the institution.

The role of a specialist in industrial psychology 

It was identified by Frezer (1969, Frezer) within the following topics:

A. Increasing worker productivity: by improving working methods, developing machinery and equipment, improving vocational training methods, and everything related to the worker and his duties.

(b) Remove the potential risks to the worker, relieve the pressure of physical factors in the field of work reduce fatigue and boredom and all that makes work dangerous. C. Know the work requirements, the characteristics of the personal factor, and measure the extent to which individuals possess those characteristics which can be used as a basis for putting the right person in the right place.

C. Know the work requirements, the characteristics of the personal factor, and measure the extent to which individuals possess those characteristics, which can be used as a basis for putting the right person in the right place.

(d) Increasing intangible rumours in the field of work until the worker becomes merely a meaningless routine, forcing the individual to bear it to earn a living. Rather, material, psychological and social conditions must be created that adequately and quality production under working conditions in which the worker is more satisfied with his or her work and more satisfied.

 Similarly, industrial psychology deals with solving the various problems that stand in the way of industry or affect the adequacy of production in a scientific and human state, putting the health of the psychological factor above all consideration, as well as the psychosocial atmosphere that prevails between workers, specialists and administrators in any factory, company or enterprise, is more important and effective than the physical atmosphere of work.

Fields of industrial psychology:

As with general psychology, industrial and organizational psychology is a rich and diverse science that includes several disciplines that we include in the following, see figure 1.

(1) Functional Psychology (Administrative)

Functional psychology (management) is one of the oldest fields of industrial and organizational psychology, and is interested in studying individual differences while identifying the skills, abilities and preparations that a staff member must have to perform certain jobs, and how to evaluate the performance of workers and arrange them to improve job performance.

(2) organizational behavior

Almost all individuals work in some form of organization, and we all know that organizations of all kinds may influence the attitudes and behaviours of individuals they associate with; work in this area includes factors, such as: roles that are suspended by behavior, pressures that groups may impose on individuals, personal feelings of loyalty or organizational commitment, and patterns of communication within the organization.

 It should be noted that there is a significant social impact in research on topics of organizational behaviour, given that organizations are only social groupings. Functional self-employment (administrative) addresses individual issues

 (e.g. any of the candidates who apply for the job and those who are rejected) while the behaviour of social influences on individuals working in organizational organizations is more concerned with matters relating to the social impacts on individuals working in or dealing with organizations on a regular basis.

(3) Organizational Development

It focuses on helping the Organization to evolve and change for the better, by helping it plan programmed to bring about change, and how to reduce individual resistance to it.

(4) Engineering Psychology

This science is concerned with understanding human performance in machine systems, including the design of machines and equipment designed for operation by individuals. However, individuals have their limitations in terms of power, time of return, connectivity, unity of feeling, etc., and no one will benefit if the demands of the machine exceed human boundaries.

Engineering psychology also attempts to modify the work environment to match skills and abilities and human talents.

(5) Vocational and career guidance

Vocational guidance is concerned with helping individuals solve their work problems and helps factory workers choose the right profession according to their abilities preparations, motivations and professional finances. It also resolves conflicts at work and abroad, effectively planning its career progression, retirement and conforming to the requirements of its environment.

(6) Industrial Relations

The last sub-specialty of industrial and organizational psychology is industrial ization. It deals with problems that exist between employers and workers, usually including the workers' union

Issues such as cooperation and conflict between employers and workers, labor force dispute resolution, collective bargaining agreements, and negotiations between several parts of the workforce. Industrial and regulatory psychologists in this field have direct contact with specialists in labor disputes, i.e. individuals with knowledge and knowledge of the country's labor and labor laws, collective bargaining and conflict resolution.

The role of the psychologist at work


The sheet metal company has invited an industrial psychologist to address the phenomenon of rising absenteeism among workers. 

This specialist began his work by examining the attendance debate for the causes of absenteeism, and fortunately a large part of the reasons for absenteeism were due to increased accident rates over the last few months.

 Further scrutiny of the data also indicated that new workers were much more likely to be injured by accidents than old workers.

 After monitoring the work steps and interviews with some workers and supervisors the industrial psychologist discovered that the company had not trained new workers in safe procedures. 

Therefore, his recommendations included calling on the company to adopt a training program for new workers on safe procedures. Let us assume that the rates of absence resulting from injury are still unacceptable to the company, then the specialist can recommend other measures such as: the development of safety plates to help workers remember the dangers, and the adoption of a program through which the sections whose members always follow the instructions of al-Salmeh give incentives and prizes in order to develop and strengthen the motives of al-Salmeh among the employees. 

After a while, the specialist assesses the results of his new therapist programmer and if he finds that all the procedures he has recommended have already reduced accident and absenteeism rates, he or she has succeeded in maintaining the health of the workers and has saved the company significant amounts of money.


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